True knowledge comes with deep understanding of a topic and its inner workings — Albert Einstein

I found this really cool article here on Medium where the author walks you through the steps of writing a simple hello world program in pure hex. I thought this was a pretty cool idea, so I decided to take it a step further and write a game from scratch in pure hex. I highly suggest you go through the article first before attempting this one, as I will be taking certain things for granted because they are explained in the article. However, I…

A detailed explanation on how I debugged Cyberpunk 2077 to find the reason behind the crash.

I remember when I first downloaded Cyberpunk 2077 right after it came out, and I tried running it. I was immediately greeted with this error:

The best thing that can happen when you’re bursting with anticipation for the game

After spending a few hours looking around on forums and reddit, I eventually reached a dead end. I tried a few things like verifying file integrity via Steam, but everything I tried failed. I eventually just gave up, and played the game via a cloud gaming service instead (Geforce Now is the one I used, worked great!).

However, I randomly started thinking about Cyberpunk 2077 this morning, and decided to figure out why the game…

A Comprehensive Guide

A detailed explanation of how to recognize encryption algorithms in assembly code.

For those of you interested in reverse engineering (either as a potential career or just as a hobby), you will inevitably encounter encryption algorithms on your journey. Maybe you’re reversing some undocumented software that communicates over the internet, or maybe you’re simply solving a crackme that involves figuring out how a key is generated. Whatever your reasons might be, you’ll definitely benefit from having a thorough understanding of how common encryption algorithms work, how they’re implemented, and also how to recognize these algorithms in assembly code.

In this article series, I will cover a few common encryption algorithms, and I…

Sander Strand

I'm Sander. I love taking things apart and seeing how they work. I do tutoring at

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